Cereals constitute a significant part of the cultivated area in Poland (over 70% according to GUS data). However, the yields achieved are far from the potential offered by today's varieties.

This state of affairs - apart from often not entirely favorable climatic and weather conditions - is due to mistakes made in the agricultural treatment of these plants. Fertilization, which is the basic crop-forming treatment, is an important element in agricultural technology.

An important morphological feature of cereals, limiting the possibility of nutrient and water uptake, is their relatively shallow root system. Therefore, for proper development and a satisfactory yield, it is necessary to provide a plethora of nutrients in the top (cultivated) soil layer. In terms of nutrition, the ingredients in the initial growth period are the ones responsible for the development of the root system, as they guarantee greater tolerance to temporary water deficits and increased nutrient uptake later on.

Cereal yield is the product of two factors: the number of grains per unit area and their weight. The process of creating a yield begins in the early stages of plant development. From sowing to the end of the tillering stage, when the final number of vegetative shoots is formed, we are dealing with the period of building the yield potential. The possibilities of building this potential are greatly determined by habitat factors, the amount of light, water supply and nutrients. The beginning of the stem shooting stage is also the beginning of the blade reduction process.


The speed and intensity of this process depend on environmental and agrotechnical factors. The maximum number of grains per ear depends on the number of individual spikelets and the number of fertile flowers per spikelet. The process of flower and spikelet reduction begins at the end of the stem shooting phase and continues until flowering. The deficit of nutrients and water at this time contributes to the intensification of the processes of seed reduction in the spike.

The weight of one thousand grains is formed from the beginning of filling the grains and lasts until full maturity. This largely depends on the nitrogen nutrition of plants, temperature and the amount of water available.

The fertilization of cereals with macronutrients is primarily to ensure a quantitatively satisfactory grain yield. To achieve this result, the level of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium fertilization should take into account these components' abundance in the soil and the expected grain yield. At this point, it should be added that the starting point for obtaining high yields in cereals is the pH appropriate for the species and agronomic class of the soil, determining the plant's ability to build the root system (aluminum ion toxicity at low pH) and the ability to uptake macronutrients from the soil.

Micronutrient fertilization is essentially prophylactic. Each of the micronutrients has a broad spectrum of activity in crops. Their deficiency may result in a reduction in the plant's yield on the one hand, while on the other, it is not always easy to clearly identify the deficit. Micronutrients primarily participate (directly or indirectly) in the processes of effective nitrogen uptake and conversion (manganese, copper, sometimes zinc), but also (indirectly) support the plants' immune responses.



Fertilization technologies

Taking into account the different expectations of farmers in terms of crop nutrition, we have prepared for you three complete proposals for foliar fertilization. 
The following technologies have been prepared in response to these expectations, in order to optimally nourish the crop and are for reference. If you have any questions regarding the details of the technology and the adjustment of the individual dosage of the indicated products, we invite you to contact our Team.


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